Despite the confusion, people are concerned about the effects of environmental agreements. A Gallup poll conducted in 2017 showed that Americans were worried about global warming at a three-year peak. Between 1857 and 2012, 747 multilateral agreements on the environment were concluded.  After the Intergovernmental Conference in Stockholm in 1972, the creation of international environmental agreements multiplied.  The United Nations has made MMAs popular, most MMAs have been implemented since 1972 at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (also known as the Stockholm Conference).  The Stockholm Declaration was adopted by the 113 countries attending the conference and was the first major universal document in an environmental issue.  An agreement between two nations is called a bilateral environmental agreement. If the agreement is reached between three or more nations, it is called the Multilateral Agreement on the Environment (MEA). Such agreements, first concluded by the United Nations, deal with issues such as atmospheric policy, freshwater policy, waste and hazardous substances policy, the marine environment, the protection of nature, noise pollution and nuclear safety.  Protocol on the reduction of acidification, eutrophication and the equivalent of ground-level ozone (Gothenburg Protocol) Theme: Long-distance transport of air pollutantsIn 1999; Entry into force for the United States: 2005 This protocol requires contracting parties to control and reduce emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds. It sets short- and long-term emission reduction targets. For the United States, it contains standards of the Clean Air Act. Description: This protocol and its six annexes complement the 1959 Antarctic Treaty to improve the protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and related ecosystems.
The protocol commits the parties to “fully protect the Antarctic environment”; qualifies Antarctica as a “nature reserve dedicated to peace and science; ” establishes imperative principles and requirements for environmental protection; prohibits all commercial activity in mineral resources; and requires an environmental impact assessment (EIA) of all activities before they can be carried out. Learn more about assessing the environmental impact of non-governmental activities in Antarctica. Heavy Metals Protocol Subject: Long-range transport of air pollutantsIn 1998 Entry into force for the United States: 2003 The protocol targets three particularly harmful metals: cadmium, lead and mercury. Contracting parties must reduce their emissions of these three metals below 1990 levels (or an alternative year between 1985 and 1995). The protocol includes emissions from industrial sources, incineration processes and waste incineration. It sets strict limits for emissions from fixed sources and offers the best available techniques (BAT) for these sources, such as special filters or washers for combustion sources or mercury-free processes. The protocol requires contracting parties to stop the expiration of lead fuel for motor vehicles. In addition to the following options, individuals contact the CIA in a variety of creative possibilities. The best method depends on your personal situation.
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